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استفاده از Nominalization : شمشیر دو لبه

علیرضا رمدانی

اسم سازی در نوشتار میتواند هم باعث رسمی تر شدن و هم غیر رسمی شدن متن میشود. به طور کلی nominalize کردن به معنی به کار بردن اسم به جای فعل است. به عنوان مثال به جای استفاده از فعل develop از اسم آن استفاده کنیم.

The industrial development of the area has increased the number of people living near the lake.

این کار به دلایل متفاوتی صورت میگیرد:

۱ . برای جلوگیری از نام بردن کننده کار

Two days ago the authorities began to evacuate 30,000 people. (agent= the authorities)
Two days ago the evacuation of around 30,000 people began. (No agent mentioned)

۲ .برای ادغام دو جمله واره به صورت یک جمله واره

The building of two power stations just a few kilometres away was strongly criticised by environmentalists. (More concise, better)
Two power stations were built just a few kilometres. This was strongly criticised by environmentalists. (Less concise)

۳ .ایجاد تمرکز جدید در جمله ( اطلعات جدید و یا مهم در انتهای جملهوار یا جمله گذاشته میشوند)

Temporary shelter in a safe location for those displaced is the army’s top priority. (No particular focus)
The provision of temporary shelter in a safe location for those displaced is the army’s top priority. (Focus on the army’s top priority) 

اما به خاطر داشته باشید که استفاده از افعال زیر به اضافه یک اسم جمله شما را غیر رسمی میکند. این حالت بیشتر در Speaking استفاده میشود و مزیت آن به کار بردن هم نشینی های متنوع  ( collocations ) در گفتار است که به گرفتن نمره هفت در این مهارت کمک شایانی می نماید.

do, give, have, take + noun 

The authorities took immediate action. or the authorities acted immediately.
The decision was made to evacuate the area. or It was decided to evacuate the area.

تمرین: 

Rewrite the sentences using a nominalized form at the beginning. Leave out the agent.

  1. 1.After scientists identified the HIV virus in the mid- 1980s, there were enormous efforts to produced a vaccine.
  2. 2.Johan is obsessed with cars, and this started when he was quite young.
  3. 3.The petrol companies have reduced the price of petrol, which is good news for drivers.
  4. 4.The government has expanded the nuclear power programme, but this has been criticised by opposition politicians.
  5. 5.The council abolished parking charges in the city centre, and as a result shops have reported increased business.
  6. 6.Parent organizations are demanding healthier food in schools. And this resulted from growing concerns about childhood obesity.
  7. 7.The train will depart half an hour late because of engine problems.
  8. 8.A new college principle has been appointed, and staff may leave as a consequence.

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2021-02-08 21:57:59 C1, Grammar, GRA, Nominalization, Writing, Speaking